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There are so many cat litters on the market, it is not easy to choose the type of cat litter that is suitable for cat lovers. For novice owners, it is more likely to feel confused. Although each cat has its own preferences, owners can learn more about the characteristics of different cat litters and try to choose for their cats. The following compares five common types of cat litter, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages for the owner.

1. Mineral sand
Composition: sodium bentonite, clay or other minerals
Advantages: Imitate the nature of cats to go to the toilet on natural sand
strong cohesion
Disadvantages: heavy weight, more dust and high sand falling rate

2. Tofu sand
Ingredients: Pressed from bean curd residue, starch and corn flour
Advantages: natural bean fragrance; natural materials, not afraid of cats eating by mistake; after use, it can be flushed directly into the toilet, which is more convenient; fast condensation speed; good odor absorption ability; light weight; less dust
Disadvantages: susceptible to moisture after opening

3. Crystal sand
Ingredients: Composed of silica for deodorant
Advantages: no dust, light weight
Disadvantages: It needs to be used with a double-layer cat litter box, it is composed of chemical products, it is difficult to clean, and it is difficult to observe the urine output

4. Wood sand
Composition: Processed from leftover sawdust, divided into two types: disintegrating type and agglomerating type
Advantages: natural wood aroma, light weight, can be flushed directly into the toilet after partial use, less dust
Disadvantages: poor covering power, poor odor absorption ability, difficult to clean

5. Paper sand
Composition: Paper
Advantages: more environmentally friendly, light weight, low sand falling rate, good absorption
Disadvantages: poor covering power, poor odor absorption ability, a little dust, easy to be damp after opening

Of course, the quality of cat litter is not only determined by the type, but also by the brand. Owners need to pay attention. In addition, no matter which kind of cat litter is used, the owner needs to frequently remove the used cat litter, clean the litter box and replace it with new cat litter. Cats are very tidy. If the litter box is not clean enough, the cat may protest or even refuse to go to the toilet. When placing cat litter, also pour in a sufficient amount, and do not reduce the amount casually.

Cats are prone to kidney disease or urinary system disease because they do not like to drink water. Increasing their water intake can help reduce the risk of disease.


1. Start with food

- Increase the water content of the meal, which helps them absorb more water from eating.

- Feed food with high water content, you can choose to feed canned food, homemade fresh food, etc. These foods have a much higher water content than dry food.

- If you want to further increase the water content of the food, add appropriate amount of water to the food.

- Soak the dry food in water. After the dry food absorbs water, the water content will be greatly increased.

- In addition to increasing their water intake by increasing the water content of the diet, a more direct method is to attract them to drink more water actively from the two aspects of water supply and utensils.


2. Start with the water supply

- Cats are very particular about drinking water, they will not like water that is not clean. Frequent water changes can keep the water source fresh and clean, which will increase the cat's desire to drink water.

- Providing water of different temperatures in different seasons, providing colder water in summer to cool them down and warmer water in winter to keep them warm can increase their desire to drink water.

- Many cats like to drink running water. You can buy some water feeders that can create water flow, or install filters for the water pipes in your home, so that they can drink directly from the water that has been flowing down the pipe. The filtered water from the faucet flows continuously from the faucet, which can also satisfy their preference for drinking fresh and clean water.

- Add the cat's favorite food or flavor into the water, put the cat's favorite snack into the water container, and let them drink the water inadvertently when eating. You can also add ice cubes made from fruit juice to make the water taste their favorite.


3. Start with the water vessel

- Use a container that cats like to hold water. Different cats have different preferences for water containers. For example, some cats like to drink from human cups. Choosing the container they like can attract them to drink water.

- Cats like novelty, changing different utensils regularly can entice them to drink more water.

- Put water containers in different positions, no matter where they go, they can find water to drink anytime and anywhere. But be aware that not every place can also be placed. Cats like to be clean, so don't put them where they go to the toilet. Cats also like privacy, so don't place them where people come and go. It is best placed in a corner or where they rest.

- The most important thing to get cats to drink more water is to match what they like. Because cats have different personalities and habits, not all methods will be effective. Owners should be patient to find out the methods that are effective for them.

Dog food on the market can be divided into puppies, adult dogs and old dogs. This is because the proportion of nutrients required by dogs at different growth stages is different. Dog food with different formulas should be eaten according to the needs.


1. Dogs at different growth stages need different nutrients

Puppies:

The first one to two years after birth is a critical period for dogs to grow, so they need more protein, calcium, calories, fat and other nutrients for development. Moreover, puppies have poor physique and weak digestive function. They need a diet that is easier to digest and absorb.

Adulthood:

Adult dogs have completed their physical development, so they don’t need too much protein and calories, and just the right amount of balanced nutrition is enough to maintain their daily needs. Dogs with different breeds or living habits have different nutritional needs. Those who are active or go out often need a meal with high calories and sufficient protein to supplement physical exertion. Those with less activity do not need too many calories, but a diet with higher fiber content to prevent obesity or constipation.

Old dog period:

Older dogs have a slower metabolism and less activity, so they need fewer calories. And their gastrointestinal function slows down, so we should pay more attention to the fiber content in the diet to prevent obesity or constipation. In addition, the food intake of old dogs will decrease, and the rate of nutrient absorption will also decrease. Therefore, the proportion of protein in the food should not be too low, otherwise it will lead to muscle loss and weight loss, making the body condition worse.


2. Different dog foods have different nutritional content

Food for puppies:

Contains rich nutrition, a lot of protein and more fat; easier to digest and absorb; finer grain and easier to soak.

Food for adult dogs:

Contains balanced nutrition, moderate amount of protein and fat.

Food for old dogs:

High in calcium, low in phosphorus, and low in calories; contains high-quality protein, less fat and a moderate amount of cellulose; easier to digest and absorb; softer in texture.


4. What are the consequences of wrong distribution of dog food?

Dogs of different growth stages should only eat dog food commensurate with their growth stages. Improper diet will have a negative impact on the dog's body.

Puppies eat adult dog food:

Adult dog food contains less protein, calories and some nutrients than puppy food, so puppies will not get enough nutrition and calories for development, and it will also lead to nutritional imbalance, which will seriously affect their growth. Moreover, the digestive function of puppies is weak, and they have no ability to digest into dog food, which will harm the puppies' stomach and cause vomiting, diarrhea, etc.

Adult or old dog eating puppy food:

Since puppy food is rich in protein and high in calories, eating puppy food for adult or old dogs will lead to overnutrition, leading to problems such as overweight and obesity.


> Veterinary advice should be consulted when choosing dog food

The growth cycle of different dog breeds is slightly different, the above information is for reference only. The health status of different dogs is also different, so dog food is not only divided into age, but also according to physical condition. For example, for pregnant dogs, for diabetics, for obese dogs, etc. Therefore, to choose which dog food is most suitable for your dog, you should consult a veterinarian first, and the veterinarian will evaluate the dog's physical condition and judge which dog food is more suitable.

In summer, many owners will shave their dogs, hoping that they will be cooler. In fact, shaving them does little to dissipate heat, and can actually damage them.


- Dogs don't dissipate heat through the skin

Unlike humans, dogs do not lose heat through their skin. There are sweat glands on our skin, which can dissipate heat through perspiration. If it is covered by hair/clothes, we will feel hot because sweat is difficult to evaporate. Dogs dissipate heat through exhalation and the meat balls on the soles of their feet instead of the skin on their bodies. Therefore, dog hair does not hinder their perspiration and heat dissipation, so whether they are shaved or not does not actually affect their heat dissipation.


- Shaving is like taking away their natural "protective coat"

Dog hair can help dogs regulate body temperature and protect them from external damage. One of the functions of dog hair is heat insulation. The thicker their fur, the slower the temperature rise on the surface of the skin. If their fur is shaved, their skin will be exposed to direct sunlight, and their body temperature will rise sharply, making them more prone to heatstroke or heat exhaustion.

Dog fur protects them from mosquito bites, blocks UV rays, and blocks harmful substances and allergens. If they are shaved they lose this important protective layer. They will be easily bitten by mosquitoes and even infected with mosquito-borne diseases; sunburned by ultraviolet rays and even skin cancer; damaged by harmful substances or allergens

Shaving with a razor can easily damage the hair follicles, and the new hair will lose its original luster. Shaving them with a razor traumatizes their minds as well as their bodies. If they feel hairless, they feel different and may feel inferior or even depressed.

The weather in Hong Kong is hot and humid, and excessive hair makes dogs prone to skin diseases. Regular grooming and hair trimming can help reduce the chance of skin diseases, but remember not to shave or shave too close to the skin. There are many disadvantages to shaving the hair, unless it is necessary for illness or surgery, it is better not to shave the dog's hair.